This bibliography is updated from time to time. It is published on the WLO website ( as supporting information for the WLO Charter for Leisure. Suggestions for additions to the bibliography would be welcome (via WLO Secretariat: Updated August, 2021


  1. Document sources
  2. Selected general texts on human rights
  3. Leisure
  4. Children/play
  5. Environment/heritage
  6. Sport
  7. The arts/culture
  8. Tourism
  9. Women
  10. People with disabilities
  11. The aged
  12. Animal rights

Document sources

United Nations treaties etc:

Ishay, M. R. (Ed.). (1997). The Human Rights Reader. New York, NY: Routledge.

Selected general texts on human rights

Bauer, J.R., & Bell, D.A. (Eds.). The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapman, A., & Russell, S. (Eds) (2002). Core obligations: Building a framework for economic, social and cultural rights. Antwerp: Intersentia.

Cranston, M. (1983). Are there any human rights? Daedalus, 112(4), 1-17.

Donnelly, J. (2013). Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice, 3rd Edn. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Dugard, J., Porter, B., Ikawa, D., & Chenwi, L. (Eds) (2020). Research Handbook on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as Human Rights. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Fukuda-Parr, S., Lawson-Remer, T., and Randolph, S. (2015). Fulfilling Social and Economic Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Glendon, M.A. (2002). A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House.

Ignatieff, M. (2001). Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jabine, T.B., & Claude, R.P. (Eds) (1992). Human rights and statistics: Getting the record straight. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Landman, T., & Carvalho, E. (2010). Measuring human rights. London: Routledge.

Nickel, J.W. (2007). Making Sense of Human Rights. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Robertson, R.E. (1994). Measuring state compliance with the obligation to devote the ‘maximum available resources’ to realizing economic, social, and cultural rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 16(3), 693-714.

Turner, B.S. (1993). Outline of a theory of human rights. Sociology, 27(3), 489-512.

Waldron, J. (Ed.) (1987). Nonsense Upon Stilts: Bentham, Burke and Marx on the rights of man. London: Routledge Revivals.


Caudwell, J., and McGee, D. (2018). Editorial: From promotion to protection: human rights and events, leisure and sport. Leisure Studies, 37(1), 1-10.

McGrath, R., Young, J., and Adams, C. (2017). Leisure as a human right: special edition introduction. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(3), 314-316.

Pegg, S., & Compton, D.M. (2003). Creating opportunities and ensuring access to leisure and recreation services though inclusion in the global community. Leisure/Loisir, 28(1-2), 5-26,

Richards, D.L., & Carbonetti, B.C. (2013). Worth what we decide: a defense of the right to leisure. International Journal of Human Rights, 17(3), 329-49.

Risse, M. (2009). A right to work? A right to leisure? Labor rights as human rights. Law & Ethics of Human Rights, 3(1), 1-39.

Rojek, C. (2005). P2P leisure exchange: net banditry and the policing of intellectual property. Leisure Studies, 24(4), 357-369.

Rojek, C. (2005). Leisure Theory. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan (critical discussion of the 2000 WLO Charter for Leisure on pp. 197-199).

Rose, J.L. (2016). Free Time. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sivan, A., & Veal, A.J. (2021). Leisure and human rights: the World Leisure Organisation Charter for Leisure: Past, present and future. World Leisure Journal. DOI: 10.1080/16078055.2021.1918755.

Sylvester, C. (1992). Therapeutic recreation and the right to leisure. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 26(2), 9-20.

Veal, A.J. (2021). Human Rights and Citizenship Rights for Leisure, Sport, Tourism, Culture and Events. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Online publication. A copy of this can be freely downloaded using the link: here.

Veal, A.J. (2021). International assessment of the right to leisure time. World Leisure Journal. DOI: 10.1080/16078055.2021.1918756.

*Leisure-related textbooks with human rights contents: See ‘Education’ page.


Brackenridge, C. (2014). Women and children first? Child abuse and child protection in sport. In R. Giulianotti & D. McArdle (Eds), Sport, Civil Liberties and Human Rights (pp. 30-45). London: Routledge.

Brackenridge, C.H., Rhind, D., & Palmer, S. (2014). Locating and mitigating risks to children associated with major sporting events. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 7(3), 237-250.

Donnelly, P., & Petherick, L. (2006). Workers’ playtime? Child labour at the extremes of the sporting spectrum. In R. Giulianotti and D. McArdle (Eds), Sport, Civil Liberties and Human Rights (pp. 9-29), London: Routledge.

Simpson, B. (2005). Cities as playgrounds: active leisure for children as a human right. In J. Caudwell and P. Bramham (Eds), Sport, Active Leisure and Youth Cultures (pp. 3-23). Eastbourne, UK: Leisure Studies Association.


Campion, R., & Stephenson, J. (2014). Recreation on private property: Landowner attitudes towards Allemanstrart. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 6(1), 52-65.

Curry, N. (2002). Access rights for outdoor recreation in New Zealand: Some lessons for open country in England and Wales. Journal of Environmental Management, 64(4), 423–35.

Hunter, R. (1896/2011). The Preservation of Open Spaces and of Footpaths and Other Rights of Way. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kellert, S.R. (2012). Birthright: People and nature in the modern world. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.

McNeish, W., & Oliver, S. (2017). Contracting the right to roam. In K. Spracklen, B. Lashua, E. Sharpe, and S. Swain (Eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Leisure Theory (pp. 289-307). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Nash, R.F. (1989). The Rights of Nature: A history of environmental ethics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Ravenscroft, N., & Gilchrist, P. (2011). Outdoor recreation and the environment. In P. Bramham & S. Wragg (Eds), The New Politics of Leisure and Pleasure (pp. 45-62). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Taylor, L., & Whalley, B. (2019). ‘Real change comes from below!’ Walking and singing about places that matter: the formation of the Commoners Choir. Leisure Studies, 38(1), 58-73.


Adams, A., & Piekarz, M. (2015). Sport events and human rights: positive promotion or negative erosion? Journal of Policy Research in Tourism. Leisure and Events, 7(3), 220-236.

Booth, D. (2003). Hitting apartheid for six? The politics of the South African sports boycott. Journal of Contemporary History, 38(3), 477-93.

Darcy, S. &  Dowse, L. (2013). In search of a level playing field – the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability. Disability and Society, 28(3), 393-407.

David, P. (2005). Human Rights in Youth Sport. London: Routledge.

Donnelly, P. (2008). Sport and human rights. Sport in Society,11(4), 381-94.

Giulianotti, R., & McArdle, D. (Eds) (2006). Sport, Civil Liberties and Human Rights. London: Routledge.

Jarvie, G. (2006). Sport, human rights and poverty. Chapter 18 of Sport, Culture and Society: An introduction (pp.363-380). London: Routledge..

Kidd, B., & Donnelly, P. (2000). Human rights in sports. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35(2), 131-48.

McGillivray, D., Edwards, M.B., Brittain, I., Bocarro. J., & Koenigstorfer, J. (2018). A conceptual model and research agenda for bidding, planning and delivering major sport events that lever human rights, Leisure Studies. 38(2), 175-190.

Rowe, D. (2006). Watching brief: Cultural citizenship and viewing rights. In R. Giulianotti & D. McArdle (Eds), Sport, Civil Liberties and Human Rights (pp. 93-110). London: Routledge.

Taylor, T. (Ed.) (1999). How you Play the Game. Papers from the First International Conference on Sports and Human Rights. Sydney: University of Technology Sydney.

The arts/culture

Carter, J., & Orange, J. (2012). Contentious terrain: defining a human rights museology. Museum Management and Curatorship, 27(2), 111-27.

Darcy, S., & Taylor, T. (2009). Disability citizenship: an Australian human rights analysis of the cultural industries. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 419-41.

Hansen, S.A. (2002). The right to take part in cultural life. In A. Chapman & S. Russell (eds), Core Obligations: Building a framework for economic, social and cultural rights. Intersentia, Antwerp, pp. 279–303.

Hewison, R., & Holden, J. (2004). The Right to Art: Making aspirations reality. London: Demos.

Horne, D. (1986). The Public Culture. London: Pluto, (see pp. 232-237, ‘A declaration of cultural rights’).

Ivey, B. (2008). Arts Inc.: How greed and neglect have destroyed our cultural rights. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Shaheed, F. (2013). The Right to Freedom of Artistic Expression and Creativity: Report of the Special Rapporteur in the Field of Cultural Rights, Doc. A/HRC/23/24. New York: UN General Assembly.

Stamatopoulou, E.  (2004). Why cultural rights now? New York: Carnegie Council, available at:, (accessed, April 2015).


Bianchi, R.V., & Stephenson, M.L. (2014). Tourism and Citizenship: Rights, freedoms and responsibilities in the global order. London: Routledge.

Cole, S., & Eriksson, J. (2010). Tourism and human rights. In S. Cole & N.Morgan (Eds),  Tourism and inequality (pp. 107-25). Wallingford, UK: CABI

George, B.P., & Varghese, V. (2007). Human rights in tourism: conceptualization and stakeholder perspectives. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 12(2), 40-48.

Hall, C.M. (Ed.) (2007). Pro-poor Tourism: Who benefits? Bristol: Channel View.

Haulot, A. (1981). Social tourism: current dimensions and future developments. International Journal of Tourism Management, 2(2), 207-212.

Lovelock, B., & Lovelock, K.M. (2013) The Ethics of Tourism: Critical and applied perspectives. London: Routledge (Chapter 4: ‘Human rights’, pp. 63-94).

McCabe, S. (2009). Who needs a holiday? Evaluating social tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 36(4), 667–688.

McCabe, S., and Diekmann, A. (2015). The rights to tourism: reflections on social tourism and human rights. Tourism Recreation Research, 40(2), 194-204.

McCabe, S., Minnaert, L., & Diekman, A. (2012). Social Tourism in Europe: Theory and practice. Bristol: Channel View.

Ray, R., & Schmitt, J. (2008). The right to vacation: an international perspective. International Journal of Health Services, 38(1), 21–45.

Richards, G. (1998). Time for a holiday? Social rights and international tourism consumption. Time and Society, 7(1), 145-60.

Tourism Concern (2009). Putting Tourism to Rights: A challenge to human rights abuses in the tourism industry. London: tourism Concern.

UN World Tourism Organization (1985). Tourism Bill of Rights and Tourist Code. Madrid: UNWTO.


Deem, R. (1985). Politics of women’s leisure. Sociological Review, 33(1, suppl.), 210-228.

Henderson, K.A., & Bialeschki, M.D. (1991). A sense of entitlement to leisure as constraint and empowerment for women. Leisure Sciences, 13(1), 51-65.

International Working Group on Women & Sport (IWGWS) (2014). Brighton plus Helsinki Declaration, 2014, Gaborone, Botswana: IWGWS.

Reeves, R.B. (1994). Women’s right to leisure: A feminist perspective. Humanity and Society, 18(4), 47-54.

People with disabilities

Darcy, S. (1999). Access all areas? How the leisure industry provides for people with disabilities. Australian Leisure Management, 15, 68-70.

Darcy, S. & Dowse, L. (2013). In search of a level playing field – the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability. Disability and Society, 28(3), 393-407.

Darcy, S., & Taylor, T. (2009). Disability citizenship: an Australian human rights analysis of the cultural industries. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 419-441.

Roberts, A., Greenhill, B., Talbot, A., & Cuzak. M. (2011). Standing up for my human rights: A groups journey beyond consultation towards co-production. British Journal of Learning Disabilities 40(4), 292–301.

Singleton, J., & Darcy, S. (2013).‘Cultural life’, disability, inclusion and citizenship: moving beyond leisure in isolation. Annals of Leisure Research, 16(3), 183-192.


The aged

Karev, I., & Doron, I. (2017). The human right to leisure in old age: Reinforcement of the rights of an aging population. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 29(3), 276-295.

Animal rights

Carr, N., & Young, J. (Eds) (2018a). Domestic Animals, Humans, and Leisure: Rights, welfare, and wellbeing. London: Routledge.

Carr, N., & Young, J. (Eds) (2018b). Wild Animals and Leisure: Rights and wellbeing. London: Routledge.

Yerbury, R., Boyd, W., Lloyd, D., & Brooks, A. (2017). Right to leisure? Refocusing on the dolphin. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(3), 368-385.